The psacct package contains several utilities for monitoring process activities, including ac, lastcomm, accton and sa. The ac command displays statistics about how long users have been logged on. The lastcomm command displays information about previous executed commands. The accton command turns process accounting on or off. The sa command summarizes information about previously executed commmands. Install the psacct package if you’d like to use its utilities for monitoring process activities on your CentOS 5.4 system.
Installing the psacct package
Use yum command if you are using CentOS 5.4 / Fedora 11 / RHEL 5.4:
# yum install psacct
Start psacct service
By default service is not started on RHEL 5.4 / Fedora 11 / CentOS 5.4 you need to start psacct service manually. Type the following two commands to create /var/account/pacct file and start services:
# chkconfig psacct on # service psacct start
Display statistics about users’ connect time
ac prints out a report of connect time (in hours) based on the logins/logouts in the current wtmp file. A total is also printed out.
Print totals for each day rather than just one big total at the end.
# ac -d
Jul 3 total 1.17 Jul 4 total 2.10 Jul 5 total 8.23 Jul 6 total 2.10 Jul 7 total 0.30
Print time totals for each user in addition to the usual everything-lumped-into-one value.
# ac -p
bob 8.06 goff 0.60 maley 7.37 root 0.12 total 16.15
Find out information about previously executed user commands
lastcomm prints out information about previously executed commands. If no arguments are specified, lastcomm will print info about all of the commands in acct (the record file).
# lastcomm root
userhelper S X root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:58 userhelper S root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:45 rpmq root pts/0 0.01 secs Mon Nov 13 23:45 rpmq root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:45 rpmq root pts/0 0.01 secs Mon Nov 13 23:45 gcc root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:45 which root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:44 bash F root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:44 ls root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:43 rm root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:43 vi root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:43 ping S root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:42 ping S root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:42 ping S root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:42 cat root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:42 netstat root pts/0 0.07 secs Mon Nov 13 23:42 su S root pts/0 0.00 secs Mon Nov 13 23:38
For each entry the following information is printed: + command name of the process + flags, as recorded by the system accounting routines: S -- command executed by super-user F -- command executed after a fork but without a following exec C -- command run in PDP-11 compatibility mode (VAX only) D -- command terminated with the generation of a core file X -- command was terminated with the signal SIGTERM + the name of the user who ran the process + time the process exited
Search the accounting logs by command name:
# lastcomm rm # lastcomm passwd
rm root pts/0 0.00 secs Tue Nov 3 07:34 rm root pts/0 0.00 secs Tue Nov 3 07:34 rm root pts/0 0.00 secs Tue Nov 3 07:33 rm root pts/0 0.00 secs Tue Nov 3 07:33 rm root pts/0 0.00 secs Tue Nov 3 07:14 rm root pts/0 0.00 secs Tue Nov 3 07:14
Search the accounting logs by terminal name pts/0
# lastcomm pts/0
Summarizes accounting information
sa summarizes information about previously executed commands as recorded in the acct file. In addition, it condenses this data into a summary file named savacct which contains the number of times the command was called and the system resources used. The information can also be summarized on a per-user basis; sa will save this information into a file named usracct.
26100 26.62re 0.00cp 931k who 75980 161.69re 0.00cp 979k grep 23756 3.93re 0.00cp 938k cut 1283 815.91re 0.00cp 1327k crond* 6 4.89re 0.00cp 2102k sshd* 4 0.01re 0.00cp 1274k grotty 2 33.19re 0.00cp 1624k scp 25 0.04re 0.00cp 447k mail 15 0.05re 0.00cp 472k ntpdate
Take example of first line:
26100 26.62re 0.00cp 931k who
* 26.62re “real time” in wall clock minutes
* 0.00cp sum of system and user time in cpu minutes
* 931k cpu-time averaged core usage, in 1k units
* who command name
For each command in the accounting file, print the userid and command name.
# sa -u
root 0.00 cpu 595k mem accton root 0.00 cpu 12488k mem initlog root 0.00 cpu 12488k mem initlog root 0.00 cpu 12482k mem touch root 0.00 cpu 13226k mem psacct root 0.00 cpu 595k mem consoletype root 0.00 cpu 13192k mem psacct * root 0.00 cpu 13226k mem psacct root 0.00 cpu 12492k mem chkconfig
Print the number of processes and number of CPU minutes on a per-user basis.
# sa -m
973902 107317.71re 1337.92cp 2101k root 781510 95856.57re 559.01cp 1795k apache 334 9007.96re 513.05cp 25916k nagios 192035 2447.62re 265.85cp 3303k smmsp 17 0.67re 0.00cp 2033k sshd 6 4.89re 0.00cp 2102k